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What is the working principle of a centrifugal compressor?

2019-06-12

The main components of a centrifugal compressor for compressing gas are a high-speed rotating impeller and a diffuser with a gradually increasing flow area. The working principle is: When the impeller rotates at a high speed, the gas rotates with it. Under the action of centrifugal force, the gas is thrown into the diffuser behind, and a vacuum zone is formed at the impeller. At this time, the fresh gas from the outside enters the impeller. The impeller of the high-pressure vulcanization fan keeps rotating, and the gas is continuously sucked in and thrown out, thereby maintaining the continuous flow of the gas.


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When the gas flows through the impeller of the centrifugal compressor, the high-speed impeller makes the gas under the action of centrifugal force, on the one hand, the pressure increases, on the other hand, the speed also greatly increases, that is, the centrifugal compressor first removes the original gas through the impeller. The mechanical energy of the motive is transformed into the static pressure energy and kinetic energy of the gas.


After that, when the gas flows through the diffuser channel, the cross section of the flow channel gradually increases, the flow rate of the gas molecules in the front decreases, and the gas molecules in the back continue to flow forward, so that most of the kinetic energy of the gas is transformed into static pressure energy. That is to further increase the pressure. Obviously, the work done by the impeller on the gas is the fundamental reason for the gas to increase the pressure, and the work done by the impeller on the unit mass of gas per unit time is closely related to the peripheral speed of the outer edge of the impeller. The greater the work done.


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The main performance parameters of centrifugal compressors are structure, discharge flow, discharge pressure, suction pressure, shaft power, efficiency and speed. The small flow of the centrifugal compressor of the high-pressure centrifugal blower is limited by the surge condition, and the large flow is limited by the blocking condition. It can be adjusted by variable speed, inlet throttling, outlet throttling and adjustable inlet guide vanes to expand the scope of operating conditions.



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